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These "culturally modified trees" are red cedars that have had their bark stripped off for aboriginal and ceremonial purposes (left).

They are unique signposts of indigenous occupation and provide evidence of Aboriginal Title and Rights: some have been dated back to 1137 AD.

Yet most of these trees are no more than 500 years old and rarely reach over 800 years.

By contrast, in BC the age of ancient trees may be much greater, up to 2000 years in some cases, yet they have no protection from the industrial onslaught. Vancouver Island, British Columbia Douglas fir tree, Cathedral Grove.

Although spiritual in meaning, "Cathedral Grove" is a name embedded in a romantic and Eurocentric attitude toward BC nature that does not adequately acknowledge the stewardship of the indigenous peoples, First Nations, who cared for this biological treasure over 1000s of years and preserved it as a big tree heritage for all human beings (right). Photo: Richard Boyce The ancient red cedar (Thuja plicata) specimen that survives in Cathedral Grove (right) represents a critical species to First Nations.