The civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security forces.
The government's respect for human rights remained problematic.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven semi-autonomous emirates, with an estimated resident population of 4.5 million, of which only 21 percent are citizens.
The seven emirate rulers constitute the Federal Supreme Council, the highest legislative and executive body.
The law permits indefinite incommunicado detention without appeal, and in one case the government held a prisoner incommunicado for several months at least.